This article is based on studies in the US, but its applicability is universal in nature….
The four year drought in California has highlighted the need to focus on water management in facilities, and not just on the West Coast. The U.S. Government Accountability Office recently found that 40 out of 50 state water managers expected shortages in some portion of their states in the next decade. The cost of water is also up; water and sewer rates increased 8.5% from 2013 to 2014. With water scarcity and prices on the rise, facility management leaders face the challenge of reducing water waste to conserve this limited resource while controlling costs.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) WaterSense program is one resource; it is both a water savings education program and a label for water efficient products. WaterSense labeled products are independently certified to use at least 20% less water than the federal standard and perform as well or better than standard models. Commercial products that can earn the label include tank-type faucets, showerheads, flushing urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves used to remove food from dishes.
By 2016, flushometer-valve toilets will also be eligible for the WaterSense label.
Installing WaterSense labeled fixtures and other water efficient equipment can be an important step in saving water, but establishing an ongoing maintenance program to detect and address leaks helps further reduce and prevent significant water loss. On average, water leaks and other types of water waste can amount to more than 6% of a facility’s annual water use.
Leaks can occur in any fixtures, pipes, and plumbing joints; water can also be wasted by malfunctioning or failed fixtures and equipment. A one-gallon-per-minute leak results in more than 500,000 gallons of water loss per year, costing the average commercial facility more than $5,300 annually.
Sometimes the issue isn’t as obvious as a dripping faucet or running toilet.
Best Practices To Nip Those Drips
Creating a program to detect leaks and malfunctioning equipment can save facilities thousands of gallons of water per year, benefitting both the environment and the bottom line. From reading water meters and installing failure abatement technologies to educating building occupants and making repairs in a timely fashion, facility managers should keep the following practices in mind when developing a leak detection and repair program.
Monitor Water Consumption. Regularly reading and recording building and system-level water meter data can help identify water use inconsistencies, which in turn can help facilities address water losses faster. Facility managers should monitor water and sewer bills monthly and check water meters (or submeters, if available) regularly.
It is also a good idea to periodically check the water meters during off-peak hours, when water using equipment and fixtures are not being used or can be shut off. Meter readings that differ after a one-hour period indicate there might be a leak somewhere within the facility.
Walk the space and assess Water use. By walking the entire facility—including mechanical spaces—to look for leaks and listen for running water, maintenance staff can identify unnecessary water use. Staff should check for dripping faucets, running toilets, unanticipated discharge to floor drains (particularly in mechanical spaces), and soggy spots in landscaping or water puddles in parking lots when it hasn’t rained recently.
While facility walk-throughs help identify individual causes of water waste, overall assessments consider the big picture in preventing water loss and reducing overall consumption. During an assessment, all major water uses should be identified and estimated. If more than 10% of total water use is unaccounted for, a facility might have leaks or unnecessary water loss somewhere in the system.
During a water assessment at EPA’s Science and Technology Center in Kansas City, KS, assessors found that the vacuum pump system was operating incorrectly. The vacuum pump system, by design, had a recovery and recirculation system that was intended to reduce water use by 80%; however the system was continuously discharging the liquid ring seal water. Instead of using 200,000 gallons of water per year, the system was using more than 1.2 million gallons. Following the assessment, the vacuum pump system was cleaned and serviced, saving the Agency an estimated one million gallons of water and $9,000 in water and waste water costs annually.
Install Alarms or Sensors. Leak detection devices sense abnormal water flow increases, which could indicate potential equipment malfunction and help stop water loss. Leak detection devices can alert a user of an issue through alarms, flashing lights, or electronic alerts, or they can automatically cut off the water supply. Connecting the device to a building management or automation system ensures the alert will be sent to a centralized location where a facilities staff member is monitoring building operations.
Educate Occupants to Report Leaks. All building occupants should know how and where to report leaks. Many facilities display signage in kitchen and restroom areas describing what occupants can do in case of a water related maintenance issue. Once a leak is reported, it should be repaired immediately to not only address the water waste but also to encourage future reporting. Staff should use call logs or work order data to identify recurring problems with equipment, and consider replacing items that malfunction frequently.
Hotels, college campuses, and other facilities with temporary residents can inform guests how to report a leak in their rooms or other areas of the facility. For example, Kalaloch Lodge in Washington’s Olympic National Park created in-room literature as part of its “Water Is Vital” campaign that encourages guests to report leaks to the front desk. Caesars Entertainment’s CodeGreen program lets resort employees know that a leaky tap can waste 100 gallons per day, and gives incentives to employees who suggest water saving ideas.
Put WaterSense To Work
To help facility managers assess and reduce water use, EPA has created “WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities.” The guide covers a variety of building types and areas to save water, energy, and operating costs.